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著名企业家搜狐CEO张朝阳讲话

文章来源:演讲网 未知 文章作者:admin 点击次数: 发布时间:2011-08-01 17:03

著名企业家搜狐CEO张朝阳讲话 文章摘要: 张朝阳发表题为《不完全的市场经济时刻在妨碍竞争》演讲,他把今天中美之间的竞争,描述为勤奋的儒家精神+不完全的市场经济与个人主义精神+公平的完备的市场经济之间的大PK,他认为这种竞争的答案是肯定而令人沮丧的

  著名企业家搜狐CEO张朝阳讲话

  文章摘要:张朝阳发表题为《不完全的市场经济时刻在妨碍竞争》演讲,他把今天中美之间的竞争,描述为“勤奋的儒家精神+不完全的市场经济与个人主义精神+公平的完备的市场经济之间的大PK”,他认为这种竞争的答案“是肯定而令人沮丧的,我们无法战胜美国!”

  “2010·中国新视角高峰论坛”于2010年2月3日在北京隆重召开。以下是搜狐公司董事局主席兼首席执行官张朝阳的发言:

  2010年的搜狐已经是一个名正言顺的媒体公司,媒体公司的年会,就不只是公司本身的事情,而且是一个思想表达与传播的公共的事情,在如搜狐这样的媒体公司内部,也有着编辑部与管理层这样两个阵营,所谓的教会与国家,编辑部在内容方面有相当的独立性,在搜狐,总编辑于威代表教会,而我代表国家。作为搜狐的董事长及首席执行官,我有没有资格来做重要的演讲呢,没有,我只能是作为主办方的领导欢迎大家到来。当然教会与国家之间这堵墙也不总是存在的,我有时也与搜狐编辑部探讨方向及细节,可以说是脚踩两只船,所以作为有时候充当搜狐的总编辑的角色我今天在这个思想的论坛上发言,我的意思是说,对于有否资格发言的问题,我们应该较真儿,其实我们对很多事情都应该开始较真,而不是总处于和稀泥的状态。我30岁之前一直是学生及学者,在物理学方面,到现在,也走了很多国家, 参与了很多事情,对很多事情很有感想,所以今天请允许我花点时间谈一下。

  2049年,我们在座的很多都还活着,我们都儿孙满堂,那时候,中国人是否都能幸福而有尊严地活着,是否在美国人面前很有面子,中国是否能赢得尊重,这些全都与现在有关系,与每个人有关系,在现在与2049的幸福生活之间还有很多障碍,能否到达光辉的彼岸,与我们现在是愚蠢还是聪明的选择有至关重要的关系。到时候,假如中国的崛起和富强成为泡影,我们的后辈会指着我们说,瞧你们那一代人都做了什么,你们怎么那么二啊?

  中国人是世界上最勤奋的民族,儒家文化要我们入世,进取,人生如逆水行舟,不进则退,有点机会就能发家,给点阳光就灿烂,中国的政府官员是世界上最勤勉的官员,中国社会对腐败的容忍度也远比如俄国,巴西印度等要低。三十年市场化改革给了勤奋的中国人机会,珠三角,长三角的打工者以低廉的工资没日没夜地工作在流水线上,全国各地市的儒家领导们因为临近地市的竞争与晋升压力也同样没日没夜地带领其子民在致富的道路上奔跑。中国人的勤奋精神及在轻工业领域部分的市场化创造了made in China的奇迹,人类消费产品链条的中下游几乎被廉价的中国产品垄断,这就是30年经济奇迹的原因。

  30年的成就是巨大的,我们也因此沉浸在成功的喜悦之中,甚至处于飘飘然的状态,我们现在津津乐道大国的崛起,兴奋地(如环球时报,参考消息等)收集着我们依然崇拜的高贵的西方人对我们的任何只言片语的赞扬,仿佛中国,middle kingdom 作为世界中心被周边列国朝拜的辉煌秩序又恢复了似地。这是一种幻觉!西方人其实依然不怎么把我们当回事儿!

  实际上,我们刚刚参与了经济的预选赛,进入了决赛圈,而我们的对手就是当今最强大,最先进的美国。如果我们还是现在这个样子的话,那一个学术命题就是:勤奋的儒家精神+不完全的市场经济 VS.个人主义精神+公平的完备的市场经济之间的大PK. 我认为答案是肯定而令人沮丧的,我们无法战胜美国!

  问题就出在不完全的市场经济。品质与优秀来自于全方位的竞争,创新来自于公平的竞争,而不完全的市场经济在无时无刻地妨碍竞争,而妨碍公平的竞争这件事情好像在中国不是什么大不了的事情,而在大洋彼岸,美国政府的大多数时间都在研究如何保护竞争,保护竞争也就是保护创新。只有民营企业才是在参与全方位的竞争,国有企业只是在产品质量,价格上的市场化,而不是******的市场化,因为市场并不参与选择构成企业的组织,国有企业因为国家支持或垄断的原因不会有消亡的威胁,不管优秀与否都会存在,管理层也不完全承担企业兴衰的责任,因为是国资委任命的,相比之下,活下来的民营企业一定是******的,是由市场选择的。

  举例说明,在轻型消费品领域,民营经济竞争非常充分,中国产品行销世界,这非常好,但远远不够,我们数千打工者辛辛苦苦劳作一年造出的鞋袜或玩具出口赚的钱人家卖一架飞架给我们就拿回去了。但高附加值产品制造方面,因为其沉重的计划经济的历史包袱和国家缺乏对市场经济的深刻认识,很难形成充分的市场经济环境。我们主流语境经常是:整合资源,优势互补,统筹兼顾,积极进取等等,唯独没有保护公平竞争这样的最最最重要的语句。在飞机制造领域,我们迷信过去的计划经济的举国体制,少有民营经济参与,殊不知波音公司可是经过百年竞争的产物,在武器,装备制造方面,我们依靠大量的国有企业,而美国的雷神公司,休斯公司,霍尼韦尔等等等这些市场竞争的产物是美国武器制造的主要提供者,政府采购有严格的审查竞争机制,照这样下去,我看美国四十年后依然还是地球上的老大,有着最先进的武器,当然就有着话语权。汽车工业,西方百年的竞争产生了******的公司,而我们却依靠大量的国有企业与西方公司签下了众多以所谓市场(即股权、品牌)换技术的不平等条约,到现在后悔了,忙着推自己的品牌,但已经让人家赚了十年的钱,吉利,比亚迪太少了啊! 在金融领域,美国的高盛,摩根叱咤全球资本市场,中国的国有银行,投行二十年后相比之下还处在小儿科的状态。

  在媒体领域,中国的体制内的报纸,电视台缺乏完全意义上的竞争,并没有形成具有独立人格和媒体理想的组织,所以没有权威和尊重,华尔街日报,纽约时报报点什么东西,全球人都关注,都相信,中国在全球的话语权因为没有能够赢得尊重的媒体组织而极其缺乏,政府组织的媒体国家队进行全球品牌的推广因为是非市场竞争的产物,注定虎头蛇尾,毫无竞争力。而在影视领域,因为媒体渠道的国有化而缺乏竞争,司法对知识产权保护不力等原因,中国的影视还处在作坊阶段,没有形成大工业,一部阿凡达让国人惊叹美国电影工业的发达,殊不知阿凡达只是美国好电影的冰山一角,好的电影不仅在于制作技术而且在于故事,表演,甚至价值观,而这是美国竞争极其充分的发行渠道,成千上万的剧作者,投资者,制片人充分的激烈的公平的竞争产物。因为发达的媒体及娱乐业,美国在地球上的软实力是我们无法撼动的。

  越说越令人沮丧,就此打住,你们会问,那我们怎么办:

  答案很明显:矢志不渝地继续进行市场化改革,不改革没有出路!没有充分的,公平的市场竞争,就没有品质,没有优秀,没有就业机会,没有稳定,没有中国真正的崛起。

  具体怎么做?问题很复杂,但一个基本点就是对政府权力的限制和对公平性的追根问底,只有公平的****限度的实现,才能让有才能的个人和组织脱颖而出,社会才能充满活力和创造性,否则我们发展的将不会是完全的市场经济,而可能是权贵资本主义,政府应该放下很多亲自参与竞争与民争利的举动,把主要精力用在保护公平竞争上来。

  当然,我相信,经济体制应该与文化有关系,比如,我们的儒家体制和奉献精神可能使得政府比西方的政府有更高的效率,能承担更大比例的社会职责,但都是一个度的问题,无论是中国人,还是美国人,都是地球人,而且地球越来越小,我们越来越相似,所以,我们应该聪明地思考中国特色和普世价值观的比例问题,而且,在经济领域的普世价值观即竞争理念已经被充分证明了,全面接受就完了呗。

  我的回答很笼统,幸好我们有这么多的思想者,实践者来参与讨论,不愁没有好的答案,那就让我们大家来给中国经济提供真知灼见,并通过搜狐这样的媒体平台,启发社会思考,为了中国真正的崛起,为了2049年我们的子孙真正地happily thereafter。谢谢你们听我高谈阔论。

  英文版本参考:

  A famous entrepreneur Sohu CEO Zhang Zhaoyang speech

  Abstract: Zhang Zhaoyang entitled" incomplete market economy time in the competitive" speech, he put the competition between China and the United States today, described as a" hard-working spirit of Confucian and incomplete market economy and individual spirit + fair a complete market economy between large PK", he thinks this kind of competition answer" is certainly rather frustrating, we were unable to defeat the United States of america!"

  "2010 China Summit Forum on February 3, 2010 new perspective" is held ceremoniously in Beijing. The following is the Sohu company chairman of the board and CEO Zhang Zhaoyang speeches:

  2010, Sohu is a be right and proper media company, the media company's annual meeting, not only the company a thing in itself, but also a thinking expression and communication of public events, such as Sohu in such media company, also has an editorial department and the management of two such camps, the so-called church and the state, editorial department in terms of content have considerable independence, in Sohu, editor in chief to power on behalf of the church, and I on behalf of the state. As Sohu 's chairman and chief executive, I have the qualification to make important speech, no, I only act as the leaders welcome arrival. Of course between church and state in the wall is not always there, I sometimes and Sohu Editorial Department of direction and details, can be said to be between two ships, as sometimes acts as Sohu editor role today in this thought in the Forum on the floor, I mean, for any qualification statement the problem, we should seriously, we actually about a lot of things should start seriously, but not always in wet ground state. I am 30 years old had been a student and scholar, in physics, up to now, also left a lot of countries, involved in many things, many things have to feel, so please allow me to spend some time to talk about.

  In 2049, we and many of you are still alive, we have children and grandchildren, at that time, Chinese are happy to live with dignity, whether the Americans face a face, whether China can win respect, all of these and now have a relationship, and each person has the relationship, between now and 2049 happy life there are many obstacles between, can reach the brilliant shore, and now we are foolish or clever choice has vital relations. Then, if China's rise and prosperity become the bubble, our children will at us and said, look at you that generation who did what, why are you so two?

  Chinese is the world's most industrious people, Confucian culture to our accession to the WTO, enterprising, life is like a sail against the current, do not have the opportunity to get rich, point, point to the sun is bright, the Chinese government official is the world's most diligent officials, Chinese social tolerance towards corruption is also much like Russia, Brazil and India to low. Thirty years' market-oriented reform to the diligent Chinese opportunity, the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta to low wage workers to work day and night in the pipeline, throughout the country in the Confucian leaders because near the city competition and rising pressure also day and night to lead his people in the rich on the road running. Chinese spirit of hard work and in the field of the light industry part of the market to create made in China miracle, human consumption product chain in downstream was almost cheap Chinese products monopoly, this is the 30 years the reason of economic miracle.

  30 years of great achievements, we are so immersed in the joy of success, even in the midst of self-satisfied state, we now indulge in elaborating on the rise of great powers, excitedly ( such as the global times, the reference news ) collected we still worship noble Westerners on any of our a word or two praise, like China, Middle Kingdom as the world center by the peripheral nations worship brilliant order again. It is an illusion! Westerners actually still don't take us seriously!

  In fact, we've just been involved in economic qualifier, into the final round, and our competitors is the most powerful, the most advanced of the United States of america. If we are like this now say, that an academic proposition is: hard-working spirit of Confucian and incomplete market economy VS. Individualism spirit + fair complete market economy between the big PK. I think the answer is yes and frustrating, we were unable to defeat the United States of america!

  The problem is in incomplete market economy. With excellent quality comes from the all-around competition, innovation comes from the fair competition, and imperfect market economy in every hour and moment to hinder competition, and impede fair competition it seems in China is not a big deal, but on the other side of the ocean, the United States government spend most of their time studying how to protect competition, the protection of competition is the protection of innovation. Only the private enterprise is participating in the all-around competition, state-owned company is in product quality, price on the market, rather than 100 percent of the market, because the market is not involved in the selection of a business organization, state-owned enterprises for national support or monopoly causes no extinction threat, whether good or not there will be, management did not take full responsibility for the rise and fall of an enterprise, the SASAC is appointed, by contrast, live private enterprises must be the most excellent, is chosen by the market.

  For example, in the field of consumer goods, civilian battalion economy competition is very full, China the world of product marketing, this is very good, but not far enough, we have thousands of workers work laboriously works one year to create footwear or toy export earning the family sells a plane to take back. But the high added value product manufacturing, because of its heavy historical burden and planned economy to market economy countries lack the profound understanding, it is difficult to form a full market economy environment. We in the mainstream context is often: integration of resources, complementary advantages, integrated, proactive and so on, but not to protect fair competition the most important sentences. In aircraft manufacturing industry, our superstitions past planned economy system, less private economic participation, but Boeing but after 100 years of competition in the product, in weapons, equipment manufacturing, we rely on large state-owned enterprises, and the United States of America 's company, Hughes company, Honeywell and so on these product of market competition the United States is the main provider of weapons manufacturing, government procurement has a strict review of the mechanism of competition, if it goes on like this, I think the United States forty years later still on earth's boss, with the most advanced weapon, of course there is a discourse right. Automobile industry, century western competition has produced the most outstanding companies, and we have to rely on a large number of state-owned enterprises and Western companies signed with many so-called market ( i.e., brand equity ) for technology of the unequal treaties, to regret it now, too busy to push its own brand, but let them earn money for ten years, Geely, BYD is too little! In the financial field, the United States Morgan Goldman, how the global capital market, China 's state-owned banks, investment banks after twenty years compared with the state also in pediatrics.

  In the media field, China 's system of newspapers, television, lack of complete sense of competition, and did not form an independent personality and media ideal organization, so there is no authority and respect, the Wall Street Journal, New York Times reported something, the world who are concerned about, believe, China's voice in the world because of not to be able to win the respect of media organizations and is the lack of government organization, the media national team for global brand promotion because is a product of market competition, destined to cop-out, lack of competitiveness. While in the film field, because the media channels of nationalization and the lack of competition, the lack of protection for intellectual property rights and other reasons, China is still in the television workshop stage, has not formed the big industry, an avatar let people marvel at the American film industry developed, but avatar is the United States a good movie angle, a good movie is not only making technology but also in the story, performance, and even values, and this is the United States of America competition extremely full distribution channels, tens of thousands of writers, investors, producer sufficiently intense fair competitive product. Because of the rich media and entertainment industry, the United States of America in Earth's soft strength is that we can not shake.

  More and more frustrating, stop, you will ask, what can we do:

  The answer is obvious: I won't change any day to undertake commercializing reform, do not reform have no way out! No full, fair market competition, there is no quality, no good, no jobs, no stable, no real rise of china.

  Specifically how to do? The problem is very complicated, but a fundamental point is to the limitation of governmental power and the fairness of get to the bottom of the matter, only fair to achieve maximum, can let the talented person and organization talent showing itself, can the society full of vitality and creativity, otherwise our development will not be complete market economy, and is probably the crony capitalism, the government should put many personally participate in competition with civilian dispute benefit moves, use main energy in the protection of fair competition.

  Of course, I believe, the economic system should and cultural relations, for example, the Confucian system and dedication may make the government than the Western governments have higher efficiency, can bear greater proportions of social responsibilities, but it is a matter of degree, whether Chinese or American, is the earth, people, and the earth is more and more small, we more and more similar, so, we should be smart about Chinese characteristics and universal value ratio, and, in the economic field with the universal values of competitive concept has been fully demonstrated, the full acceptance of it.

  My answer is very general, but we have so many thinkers, practitioners to participate in the discussion, not anxious does not have a good answer, let us give Chinese economy to provide high perspicacity, and through the Sohu such media platform, inspired thinking to Chinese society, truly rise, to 2049 our children really happily thereafter. Thank you for hearing me talk with eloquence.

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